Final Major Project – Research

In this blog, I plan to showcase all the research that I conducted for this project, including what data analysis I did from the results of a survey, various primary and secondary research that I undertook, and what game engine that I wish to use to create my FMP.

Research Methodology

Before I can begin creating my game demo, I first plan to engage with thorough primary, primary active, and secondary research to better understand what it is I am trying to create and how I can do so successfully. ​

There are several things that I wish to learn during my research. This includes but is not limited to what sorts of genres are most popular within interactive fiction, the styles of player choice that are implemented into the most popular games, and what sorts of game engines are available for creating a game in this style. ​

To complete most of this research, I will be relying very heavily on the internet for secondary research and games that I own as part of my primary active research. Due in part to the pandemic, primary research has become a lot more difficult than normal, but I am still able to send emails and create online surveys for people to complete. I can take any data that I collect from these surveys, be it quantitative or qualitative, and use it to better understand my audience and what appeals to them, as well as the things they want from a game of this kind and the types of features it would be best to avoid. ​

In terms of subjective data, reviews for available games on various online game stores should also prove a valuable source of information, as anyone who has left a review can provide fresh insight into the strengths and weaknesses of interactive fiction. I will need to do some research to discover where exactly I can find quantitative data, but I imagine that there are websites that specialize in documenting this kind of information.

Data Analysis

The next part of my research involved collecting data that I could use to inform the decisions about what sort of project would be most popular with what audiences. This would include but not be limited to the genre, which parts of the writing (such as the characters, the worldbuilding, etc.) receive the most development and focus, as well as what my readers would potentially enjoy the most about an interactive fiction story, as well as what they consider important when it comes to a video game’s story. ​

Creating the survey was simple enough. I have used Survey Monkey in the past to gather data for other projects. It went well then, so this was the tool that I turned to this time as well. I created the survey with a series of questions that I felt were most appropriate to my chosen focus, with questions ranging from “What kinds of stories do you enjoy the most?” to “When playing through a game’s story, what part of the writing do you enjoy most?” After that, I sent it out to various people that I knew and waited for the responses to start coming in. Unfortunately, I only received a few answers, in the end, but I still believe that this data is quite valuable.

 

The first part of my data told me that all respondents were between 18-24 years old. This tells me that my target audience for this project would be primarily young adults. Whilst I had expected more variation in the age range, this made my target audience much clearer and made me consider more carefully the styles of writing and genres that I would be using a lot more carefully. I think that people my age have come to really appreciate the wide variety of stories that video games are capable of telling and this gives me much more room to experiment with styles of writing and such when producing a story.

This data, though simple, informed me that my target audience have at least some awareness of the style of game that I am hoping to create. This makes things a little easier for me, as it means they will have at least some awareness of how the game works and what to expect from any mechanics that I choose to introduce. It also encourages me to have a little faith in my players and trust that they’ll understand enough of what is going on for me to try new things both with coding and writing. I’m excited by the possibilities this brings forth and look forward to exploring what it means later down the line.

This set of data, by comparison to the previous one, shows that whilst many people are aware of interactive fiction as a medium for storytelling, they may not have personally explored it. This does seem to indicate that I should keep the demo for my FMP relatively simple and easy to understand, so as not to overwhelm players with the information they don’t know the meaning of. The mechanics should be introduced slowly over time, which I could do in the course of a full game. In the demo itself, I plan to add only one or two new features, which will hopefully be enough to interest them in wanting to see more later down the line.

This set of data intrigues me quite a bit. The survey responses overwhelmingly say that whether or not my target audience would play a game like mine depends on the type of game that it becomes. This means I will have to thoroughly consider what genres, writing styles, and characters I make use of in my game that will best appeal to the age range most interested in my games. This is important, of course, but I want to balance this with still creating a story that I find compelling to create. This will help keep my own motivation up and, in so doing, ensure that the quality of my writing stays relatively high. If I cannot enjoy the story that I’m writing, then my readers will be able to tell, which in turn could affect how they approach the story.

Another interesting set of data that I obtained concerns the types of stories that people enjoy the most. According to my data, the range varies widely, including sci-fi, horror, and fantasy stories. This suggests that my target audience would be willing to engage with a story in a variety of genres, or even a crossover between the two. This means there are a wide variety of settings and characters that I could make use of throughout my project and I’m looking forward to exploring the many possibilities available to me. 

I’m genuinely very excited by the possibilities here, as I would love to explore creating a story in any of these genres. They all present their own challenges and, of course, their own rewards. Writing for sci-fi, for example, requires a lot of knowledge of the tropes that are most commonly used within these kinds of stories and how best to use them. These genres also provide their own unique storytelling opportunities, including what plots I could introduce and themes that I could explore, which I love.

This data gives me insight into the types of stories that people enjoy the least. Of the response that I received, there are three equal genres that they have very little interest in, those being romance, historical fiction, and comedy. I think it would be quite difficult to create a story in this form purely centered around comedy. I’m almost grateful that the data indicates that it’s more something that should be an element within a story rather than the focus of it, at least in this case.

I wouldn’t have minded trying my hand at a historical fiction or romance story, given that they would have been an interesting challenge to write, but would have required way more time to research than what I had available to me. This factor, combined with the fact that it is not what the audience is looking for in this kind of game, discourages me from making it the main focus of my FMP and that I instead focus on some of the other genres listed above.

The question of graphics versus writing is a contentious one and I wondered whether or not I should include it at all, given the strong feelings people tend to have on the matter. Whilst my project does not have a graphical focus by any means, it was still important to me to gauge whether or not people would value visual design in something like an interactive fiction game. Whilst one person answered no, as seen above, others placed emphasis on the importance of both.

This tells me that I will need to carefully consider some visual elements, such as font style, background colour, and so on, with a mind to how they will affect the reader’s experience. Whilst W was not of a mind to change the colours of the game from a standard black and white, I can’t help but wonder if I should. From personal experience, when reading anything on a screen, I tend to find that staring at a harsh white background for too long can induce headaches very easily. If I were to change the background to black and the text to white, this might enable my players to enjoy the game for longer periods of time without eyestrain. This data set gave me a lot more to think about than I thought it would and I’m grateful to have my eyes opened.

This data set gave me an interesting insight into where the player places their focus in terms of writing each time they play through a story. There were four main focuses (the plot, the character development, the relationships between characters, and the world building), and whilst they may seem obvious, I found it very useful to have a succinct list that would let me better choose what I needed to prioritize in terms of writing.

Choosing where to focus is something that I have struggled with in the past, so knowing that people were very invested in the plot and character development was extremely useful. I’m looking forward to having the opportunity to practice my skills at such things and, hopefully, when my FMP is complete, improve my work by responding to the feedback I receive.

In this final data set, I was able to learn a lot about what people enjoy the least in a game, which in this case is overwhelmingly the side content. This creates an interesting conundrum for me whilst creating my demo. As it is entirely writing-focused and in part due to the nature of it being an interactive book, everything I write will need to go towards advancing the plot or characters in some way. I cannot afford to waste screen time with content that ultimately adds nothing to the story, as it will weigh down the plot and make things boring to read. There are, however, moments of action or fun that I wish to include so that the players don’t feel constantly held down by the main plot, as I want them to have a measure of agency and influence over the story.

I had unconsciously been thinking of it all as side content until now and I have just realized that this does not need to be the case. I will need to be careful, of course, in how I implement it, but it’s entirely possible to have more light-hearted moments alongside the main story.

Overall, I learned a lot from the data gathering, despite my unfortunately small sample size. I learned a lot about what people are looking for in terms of writing, their experiences with the medium of interactive fiction, and where I need to focus my efforts in terms of writing, which is all incredibly useful. I feel a lot better equipped to take on this project now, having important information at my disposal that will influence the rest of my research, not to mention influence the actual production of my FMP as well.

I need to keep all the things that I learned in mind when designing my game. I shouldn’t let it limit what I create too greatly. If anything, this part of the project taught me that I have a lot more to learn about data analysis and how it can be used as a tool of creativity.

Research on Interactive Fiction

In this part of my blog post regarding research, I researched five different writers and developers who had created works of interactive fiction, both to see what lessons I could learn from their own development process, as well as take inspiration from their games.

Writer #1 – Mishka Jenkins

Mishka Jenkins is an interactive creative works developer from the UK who created the interactive fiction series The Wayhaven Chronicles. I found her series on Steam through secondary research and decided to reach out to her through an email, asking her a series of questions such as what inspired her to make the series and what she thought were the most important parts of developing an interaction fiction game included. Unfortunately, I never received a reply. I was, however, able to find some insight into her creative process through her Tumblr blog, where I found some of the answers that I was looking for. ​

In terms of her writing process, she talks about how she always begins by having an idea for the plot. This is an alternative to how I usually get story ideas, which start with a specific scene or character, so it was interesting to consider how this affects her writing. By starting with an overall story arc, you can plot out all the major points that you want to include in the first draft, as she points out. This is especially useful when writing interactive fiction, as there are many variations you can do of one scene depending on a player’s choices. Keeping the players’ choices in mind and creating the coding for that can take a massive amount of time, not to mention the complexities it can create further into the story you get. It creates a very rewarding experience for the player in the long run, however, and gives your game plenty of replayability besides. This is something that I need to keep in mind whilst writing as it will up the overall quality of my game as a result and encourage my players to keep coming back for more.

(Jenkins, 2020) [1]

She also mentions that as the plot of the Wayhaven Chronicles is now proceeding to get more intense (the Wayhaven Chronicles is a series and Mishka is currently in the middle of writing the third game) she has moved from bullet pointing all the variables she has to account for to creating a more intensive flow chart system. Whilst it takes longer to plan out this way, it also means that it’s easier to prevent mistakes from happening, as all the different variations and the changes they cause being visualized make it easier to keep track of things. This is sound advice and whilst the demo won’t be as intensive as writing a full game, it can’t hurt to have a system like this in place going in, especially given my lack of experience. ​

As part of my primary active research, I purchased and downloaded the first Wayhaven game for myself. It’s well and good to read about the theory behind the development of a game but you can also learn a lot from hands-on experience. The thing that I was most interested to note was the system of statistics that a player could accumulate over the course of a game. 

 

(Hosted Games, 2018) [2]

It’s directly influenced by the player’s choices and points are placed directly into a stat that then influences the main character’s reactions to certain actions in a scene. Most interesting of all is that, even with this system in place, it does not the player from picking from any of the available choices further into a scene, which is the case in other games. Mishka discussed this a little on her blog, saying that she didn’t want to prevent her players from making choices based on stats, partially because of how limiting it is and partially because it isn’t a good reflection of how people make decisions in real life. I really like this approach to player customization and would like to implement it into my own game as well.

(Hosted Games, 2018) [2]

Writer #2 – Shu Takumi

The second writer that I decided to research for this project is Shu Takumi, director and main writer for the Ace Attorney series. I’ve always enjoyed how the Ace Attorney series handles mystery and engages the player with the story. I believe that I could learn a lot from how it constructs mysteries and encourages the player to solve them, all whilst introducing a unique and interesting cast of characters. ​

As I have no way of contacting Takumi directly, I instead did some secondary research to try and find interviews that he had given that were available in an English format. It took me a while to find anything from credible sources, but I eventually found some that gave me insight into how he approaches writing for a game. ​

The first interview that I found was translated from an interview he gave with the Japanese magazine Famitsu. In this, he talked about the structure of the games and how he lays out the manner in which he wants the player to progress through the story. In Ace Attorney, the game is broken up into chapters labeled “Turnabouts.” They each tend to go through a cycle, one that is rewarding and exciting for the player. At the very beginning of the game, an overarching mystery is introduced and then the plot zooms in to focus on smaller mysteries, with each one adding a clue as to the answer of the overarching mystery at each Turnabout’s conclusion. At the end of the game, when the player has pieced all the clues together through gameplay, a big plot twist or dramatic reveal is made, and the plot then concludes after a final conflict between the protagonists and antagonists. The ending is typically happy, even if there are moments of bittersweetness and this seems to be a deliberate choice by Takumi. ​

(Chong, 2018) [3]

Many endings today, be they in TV shows, books, or video games, base a lot of their plot twists on shock value rather than on information that the writers have taken the time to foreshadow through the plot. Whilst it’s something I dearly aim to avoid in my own writing, having the writing structure laid out in a simple and concise manner like this was very helpful and is something that can be implemented into many forms of storytelling, including interactive fiction. ​

(Schmupulations, n.d) [4]

Ace Attorney, as a visual novel series, does not allow players to influence the plot through choices. Indeed, there are no narrative branches, beyond the potential to get a game over by incorrectly solving the puzzles the game presents you with. I think that this is particularly interesting, as it shows that there is more than one to engage an audience in this story format, namely by making them placing them in the shoes of the protagonist and having them solve mysteries in his stead. Taking this approach to my game could not only save me time but also make it more interesting, depending on the genre of the story.

(Lacry, 2019) [5]

It also adds allow the developer to hint at the things to come within the story through puzzle clues and answers. This could involve the arcs of certain characters, the answers to an overarching mystery, or even hint at games (and consequently, the plots to come) that can help draw the player in and make them more emotionally involved in finding the right outcome.

Writer #3: Florent Maurin and Pierre Corbinais

Florent Maurin and Pierre Corbinais are French writers and game developers who work for the game development company Pixel Hunt, of whom Maurin is the founder. Their first game development project was Bury Me, My Love, a text-based game that follows the story of the Syrian refugee Nour as she attempts to migrate to Germany.​

Unlike the other games that I’ve researched so far, Bury Me, My Love’s story takes place through text message. To find out more about the development, I sent an email with some questions to the contact information listed on the Pixel Hunt website, to which I have yet to receive a reply. I wasn’t completely lost, however – through some secondary research, I found several interviews online, alongside blog posts written by the developers, that gave me insight into their views on game development.​

(Shiroma, 2018) [6]

According to an interview Maurin had with Top Shelf Gaming, this was a deliberate choice. To quote him, “The thing with a text message is that they very easily recreate a feeling of intimacy . . . this is very interesting narratively speaking because you don’t need much to make the player feel connected to the characters.” (Shiroma, 2018) This is a point that I hadn’t considered before now when thinking about what direction I wanted the story to appear in. The framing in which a story appears can be just as important as the story itself. This is especially true of video games, in which there are so many different ways to present a story to a player that it’s easy to find yourself lost for choice. Some developers will tell their audience a story with words, other with gameplay, and others still with visuals alone.​

(Shiroma, 2018) [6]

This is true even for interactive fiction. Whilst many take the form of interactive books, others such as Ace Attorney and Bury Me, My Love has taken a different approach. By presenting the story in a text format, it immediately becomes more relatable to a much wider audience, as the vast majority of people have experienced emotional moments of their lives through text messages or video chats. There’s something to be said for telling a truly emotional tale in a format that a viewer can connect with. The success of Bury Me, My Love is also a shining example of how it’s important to think outside the box and try new things. It can truly raise your story to a new level and make it a much more memorable experience for your players. Reading about this game has given me a lot to consider in terms of my game’s layout. Whilst there are time constraints and a lack of experience to consider, it would be worth exploring how to create a text message version of a game to change the way my audience interacts with the narrative.

Writer #4 – Choice of Games

Choice of Games is a little different from the other writers that I have covered in my research, as they aren’t really writers per se. Choice of Games is a company that produces multiple choices games and hosts dozens of authors on their website and mobile app. The reason that I’ve chosen them is that their blog contains some very interesting articles on the development of interactive stories, some of which were written by a variety of different authors. They’ve also helped the careers of several different authors, including one whom I’ve already covered, Mishka Jenkins, who originally published the Wayhaven Chronicles through them. ​

The first blog of theirs that I found through secondary research was written by Dan Fabulich, the author of several interactive stories, in 2011. It’s entitled “7 Rules for Designing Great Stats” and it goes over the details of implementing player statistics in your game. Player statistics, to elaborate, are a set of values that indicate a player character’s proficiency in a particular skill area, or what sort of personality the character is leaning towards based upon the choices that the player has made. It’s an interesting system and has been implemented in a number of games in different ways. Some games will limit the choices that players can make based upon what statistics they have, which encourages more strategic play depending on the outcome the player is aiming to achieve.

(Fabulich, 2011) [7]

Other games will have the main character able to make choices regardless of their statistics to allow for greater role play for the reader. Either way is a valid approach to an interactive game’s design, of course, but as Fabulich points out, you should tailor what stats you implement as a developer according to both the story and the experience that you want to provide your players with.​

Another article, this time written by Adam Strong-Morse, discusses the way in which to manage narrative branches within an interactive game. It can be very tempting to let each branch become its own massive story and lose sight of the main focus of your plot, which is a danger in and of itself. This could leave your players bored and disengaged, which is ideally something I would like to avoid.

(Morse, 2010) [8]

To prevent this from happening and to keep your story concise and interesting, Strong-Morse recommends that some choices lead to vignettes, small descriptive paragraphs that can be used to convey the consequences of a choice without running off on a wildly boring tangent. As someone with a tendency to write in sprawling sentences, this is very good advice. It’s given me a lot to consider in terms of both the planning of my writing and the more technical side, including how to include player statistics in a way that meaningfully impacts gameplay.

(Stevan Hill, 2020) [9]

This article by Jason Stevan Hill also gave me some idea as to what it was that I should be aiming for in terms of word count for my demo. Even back in 2010, the longer games being published under the Choice Of name clocked in at 137,000 words, making it a relatively long read if you go out of your way to read through every single choice that the developer implemented. Even if you did not, I would say it’s a fair estimate to say that each read-through would number in the tens of thousands of words. As the final product that I will be producing will not be anywhere near this long, I shall not be aiming for a word count this high, but I would like to reach somewhere between five and eight thousand words if I have time.

Writer #5 – Greg Kasavin

The final writer that I’m going to be researching is Greg Kasavin, a writer and creative director for Supergiant Games, having worked on all their major titles. This includes the company’s latest release, Hades, which is the game that I spent the majority of my research focused on in terms of projects that Kasavin has worked on. ​

Seeing that I own Hades on PC, I was able to do some primary active research into how the game uses its gameplay to advance the narrative and how, conversely, the narrative encourages players to keep engaging with the gameplay. Whilst Hades itself is not an interactive fiction game in the way that the other games that I’ve researched are, there are reasons why I’m focusing on Hades. Kasavin’s writing, including the high amount of replayability that it rewards players with and the way that changes how they interact with the game. ​

In the home base of the game, the House of Hades, players are able to interact with characters once per time they enter. The characters themselves have countless lines of dialogue they cycle through, each reflecting their personalities, relationships, and the actions of the main character.

(SuperGiant Games, 2020) [10]

The players then have to launch themselves back into the gameplay, battling through the rogue-like style of combat, until they are defeated, which is when they return to the House and the plot, not to mention the character interactions, continue. Kasavin has said in interviews that the reason for this design choice was to give the writers some control over the pacing of the story. In a rogue-like game, they expect players to get in a large amount of playtime and didn’t want the content of the game to dry up too quickly, lowering the replayability of the game for those invested in the story.​

(Kasavin, 2020) [11]

This purposeful consideration towards replayability is something that I would do well to bring to my own game as well. One of the strengths of interactive fiction and its many branching pathways is that it, like Hades, brings a high replay value to its narrative. Unlike Hades, however, it does this by giving players a wide variety of avenues to explore, including how they can influence the main character’s personality and the events that can be experienced throughout the story. Writing this kind of story will be a fine balance between including enough variation that players keep coming back for more whilst also preventing the story from becoming bloated and driven by exposition.

Researching Game Engines

The very last research task that I aimed to undertake for this project covered the types of game engines that were available to me to make the style of game that I had in mind. There were a few potential avenues available to me and I wanted to explore them all thoroughly before coming to a decision.​

Thanks to previous experience on my course, I knew that one possible option was Unreal. I admit had no idea where to begin with creating the blueprints and such that I would need. After some secondary research, I was able to find a tutorial that someone had made showcasing the project they had made that set up a text-based adventure game, including showing how they made the blueprints and such.

Whilst Unreal wasn’t necessarily my first choice for a game engine, to begin with, I can see the benefits of being able to customize the blueprints on command to make quick changes to the game on the fly. After watching the entire tutorial series, however, I found that I had some concerns. My focus for this project is to write a game’s scenario, dialogue, and NPCs, not the coding. From the looks of things, creating the game in Unreal would have me spend a lot more time focused on creating the blueprints than writing, which I’ve still got to do. Given my lack of skill in Unreal, combined with the immense amount of time that it would take to build the whole game from scratch, I’ve decided not to use it as the engine for my project. ​

(Pat the Demon, 2020) [12]

The second engine that I considered during my research was Unity. I had seen and played games built in Unity before, including Plague Inc.: Evolved, Fallout Shelter, and Monument Valley. Having seen the wide range of games, artistic styles, and gameplay mechanics that had been built in this engine, I had some hopes that someone would have tutorials available on how to create the type of game that I wanted to create. After some secondary research, one of the most informative tutorials I found was posted by Unity themselves to YouTube. The immediate problem I found was that it wasn’t quite what I was looking for. The game they were teaching us how to build allowed players to input text to advance the story, rather than have them choose from branching dialogue options as written by the creator. As I, unfortunately, do not have the coding knowledge to take someone’s work and adapt it to fit my own in Unity, I’ve decided to move on and try and find another game engine that better suits my purposes.

(Unity, 2017) [13]

The third engine that I considered for creating my game was called Ren’py, which was designed primarily for making visual novel styles of games. This type of engine was much closer to what I was looking for than the previous ones had been, and my research gave me some hope that it would be exactly what I needed. ​

There’s plenty of well-written games out there that have successfully explored the visual novel genre, including A Letter Of Challenge, which uses Ren’py’s persistent data to encourage players to progress through the story multiple times, and King of the Cul-De-Sac, which showcases the engine’s animation capabilities extremely well. The only catch with Ren’py is that it doesn’t allow text-only games, due to it being designed exclusively for the creation of visual novels. Whilst this doesn’t rule out its ability to create branching pathways or let players make decisions about the direction of the story, it does require graphics to go along with the words. This is not what my focus is with this project, ruling this out as the engine I’m going to use. Still, if I cannot find anything more appropriate, then Ren’py would make for a good alternative.

(Thundorn Games, 2018) [14]

The final part of my research into game engines leads me to Twine 2, which is the tool I have decided to use for this project. I discovered it through itch.io, having seen some games that exactly matched the image I had in my head for my own project. This led me to investigate their creation and, thusly, discover Twine 2. It is an open-source tool that was created to allow people to write and publish interactive fiction in HTML. ​

Not only is this incredibly useful since it has been specifically designed to create the kind of game that I’ve been envisioning, but the game being published in HTML means that it can be displayed almost anywhere with relative ease. This should make it easy to display at our end-of-year show, whether it is online or in real life. Having watched several tutorials on YouTube, it’s also incredibly easy to learn and quite customizable, meaning that with a bit of tweaking I would be able to add in things such as player statistics, a way to track their relationships with various characters, and even add hidden stats that affect how the main character expresses themselves. Overall, it has a lot of potential and I’m very inspired to start working with it and discover its full potential.

(DigitalExposureTV, 2017) [15]

Bibliography

  1. Seraphinite Games, 2020, n.d, available at https://seraphinitegames.tumblr.com/post/631784607848759296/im-sorry-if-youve-answered-this-before-but-what
  2. Hosted Games, 2018, The Wayhaven Chronicles: Book One, accessed November 13th 2020, available at https://store.steampowered.com/app/800600/Wayhaven_Chronicles_Book_One/?l=french
  3. Chin Xiang Chong, 2018, Ace Attorney Writing and Narrative Design Talk from GCC ‘18, accessed November 18th 2020, available at https://medium.com/@waxinlyrical/ace-attorney-writing-and-narrative-design-talk-from-gcc-18-8c8951757c10
  4. Shmupulations, Ace Attorney: Justice For All – 2002 Developer Interview, accessed November 18th 2020, available at http://shmuplations.com/justiceforall/
  5. Lacry, 2019, Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney Trilogy Walkthrough Gameplay Part 1 – No Commentary (PC Remastered), accessed November 18th, 2020, available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qx5BV__S3DE
  6. (Shiroma M., 2017, Bury Me, My Love: The story behind the text, accessed November 23rd 2020, available at http://topshelfgaming.net/bury-me-my-love-story-behind-text/)
  7. Dan Fabulich, 2011, By the Numbers: How to Write a Long Interactive Novel That Doesn’t Suck, accessed November 23rd 2020, available at https://www.choiceofgames.com/2011/07/by-the-numbers-how-to-write-a-long-interactive-novel-that-doesnt-suck/
  8. Adam Strong-Morse, 2010, Four Ways to Write a Vignette, accessed November 23rd 2020, available at https://www.choiceofgames.com/2010/07/four-ways-to-write-a-vignette/
  9. Jason Stevan Hill, 2020, Continuing Development on “Choice of Vampire”, accessed November 23rd 2020, available at https://www.choiceofgames.com/2020/10/continuing-development-on-vampire/
  10. SuperGiant Games, 2020, Hades, accessed December 1st 2020, available at https://store.steampowered.com/app/1145360/Hades/
  11. Greg Kasavin, 2020, September 24th. Accessed December 1st 2020, available at https://twitter.com/kasavin/status/1309182551982891008?s=20
  12. Pat the Demon, 2020, Tutorial Part 1: Text Based Choose Your Own Adventure Game With a GUI in Unreal Engine 4, accessed December 19th 2020, available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FFmr8W04p-Q
  13. Unity, 2017, Creating a Text Based Adventure Game – Introduction and Goals [1/8] Live 2017/3/22, accessed December 21st 2020, available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jAf1I1UWo5Q&list=PLX2vGYjWbI0RfcpqpKlmLEy7NteIog8g4
  14. Thundorn Games, 2018, Ren’Py #2 Starting a project and displaying text., accessed December 27th 2020, available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vXaPwXThpC0&list=PLKdE0Vv4UA5-dqJLpDkPt5CLQzc6hJ-uh&index=2
  15. DigitalExposureTV, 2017, Twine 2.0 – Introduction / Tutorial #1, accessed December 27th 2020, available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iKFZhIHD7Xk&list=PLklITFhXtPCCKadv-0Gcbqoj3OCev695D
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